FATS IN YOUR DIET AND THE TOLE THEY PLAY
There are many different types of fat that you read about and see listed on food labels. Many people find all the different types of fat confusing. Are they all bad? Should you be eating all fat-free foods? Is there really such a thing as good fat? Can you get too much of a good thing?
First, let?s discuss a few definitions. The type of fat you eat does make a difference. While all fats have the same number of calories, some raise your blood cholesterol levels and others lower your blood cholesterol levels.
They are as follows:
Cholesterol-raising Fats: 1) Saturated Fats 2) Trans Fatty Acids
Cholesterol-lowering Fats: 1)
Monounsaturated Fats 2) Polyunsaturated Fats
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that in reasonable amounts, is essential to your good health. Your body produces some cholesterol (mostly in you liver), and you also get cholesterol from animal foods. There is no cholesterol in plant foods or products.
The TLC diet recommends you eat no more than 200 milligrams of cholesterol a day. Interestingly, cholesterol in food not the biggest cause of high blood cholesterol levels. (That?s a saturated fat which we will discuss in a moment.) Fortunately, there are only a few foods that need to be limited based on their cholesterol content.
Food that need to be limited on their cholesterol content:
Egg yolks ? 2 per & Shrimp ? up to 1 meal per
Squid ? up to once or twice a Abalone ? up to 1 meal per & Organ meats ? only 2 to 3 times per
There are different types of cholesterol in your body. In order to understand how the types of fat affect blood cholesterol levels, you need to first understand the two major forms of cholesterol.
or High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) carries Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
(LDL-C) or so-called ?bad cholesterol? out of your bloodstream to your liver where it is recycled or removed from your body. It is recommended that the
HDL-C level in you blood be above 40 mg/dL.
or LDL-C is one of the main substances that build up on the walls of your blood vessels causing your arteries to clog. Your doctor will determine the LDL-C target goal that you are expected to reach with diet, exercise, and treatment with study medication during this clinical research study.
Of all the types of fat, saturated fat is the most dangerous for your blood cholesterol level ? saturated fat is the real wrongdoer!
This type of fat is found in animal or vegetable foods and is hard or solid at room temperature. If you were to leave a well-marbled steak on your counter at room temperature, would the fat become liquid? No! It would remain solid; therefore it is a saturated fat. Saturated fat is found mostly in meat products, dairy products, tropical oils (palm and coconut), and processed baked goods. It is important to remember that even if these foods contain no cholesterol, they will raise your blood cholesterol level because they contain saturated fat.]
The TLC Diet recommends that no more than 7% of the calories in your diet come from saturated fat. So? If you eat about
Your saturated fat intake shouldn?t be more than
1200 calories a day
10 grams per day
1400 calories a day
11 grams per day
1600 calories a day
13 grams per day
1800 calories a day
14 grams per day
2000 calories a day
16 grams per day
2300 calories a day
18 grams per day
2500 calories a day
20 grams per day
These numbers will have more meaning when we talk about food and food labels. Basically if the average adult eats 2000 calories, then they should eat less then 16 grams of saturated fat a day.
Trans Fatty Acids
Trans fatty acid is another wrongdoer, but this one is less well known and less obvious than saturated fat. Trans fatty acids are produced when liquid oil is hydrogenated, meaning it is chemically changed from a liquid to a solid. The reason that food manufacturers use this process is to lengthen the shelf life and to provide flavor stability.
?Trans fatty acids will increase the level of cholesterol in your blood even though a particular food may be low in saturated fat and contain no cholesterol.? One of the reasons that trans fatty acids (also called trans fats) are not as well recognized as saturated fats is because the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not yet required that trans fatty acids be identified on a food label.
Labeling regulations have been proposed, but for now you will need to look at the ingredient list for the words ?hydrogenated? or ?partially hydrogenated? to determine the presence of trans fatty acids in a certain food. If these words are near the top of the ingredient list, then this food is high in trans fatty acids even though it may be low in saturated fats in commercial baked goods such as crackers, cookies or bakery products.
Monounsaturated Fate (Good Fats)
Now? the good guys! These are the fats that lower your blood cholesterol level without lowering your
HDL-C (the good cholesterol). People that eat a diet rich in monounsaturated fats usually have low levels of coronary heart disease. Those that live in the Mediterranean basin, for example, Greece, France, and Italy, have diets rich in monounsaturated fats such as olive oil, canola oil, nuts, olives, and avocados. Up to 20% of the total daily calories should be calories that come from monounsaturated fats.
Polyunsaturated fats are often considered neutral in their effect on blood cholesterol levels. They help lower LDL-C (the bad cholesterol), however, they can also cause small reductions in the HDL-C (the good cholesterol).
Polyunsaturated fats are found in liquid vegetable oils including corn, cottonseed, safflower, sesame seed, soybean, and sunflower seed oils. Up to 10% of you total daily calories should come from polyunsaturated fats. Therefore, your diet should be richer in the monounsaturated fats than in the polyunsaturated fats.
CHOOSING AND PREPARING YOUR FOOD
We will now take a look at the foods that should be increased, limited or decreased within each of the following food groups in order to follow the guidelines of the TLC Diet. ?Remember, your overall goal is to decrease your intake of saturated fat, replace much of your saturated fat with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and increase your intake of nutrient-rich, high-fiber sources of carbohydrate.?
The food you eat is divided into groups, as follows:
Meat, poultry, and fish Milk and dairy product Fats and oils
Grains and starches Vegetables and fruits Dessert and sweets
Meat and other high - protein foods: High-protein foods include poultry, fish, shellfish, beef, veal, pork, lamb, game meat, eggs, and soy products. Most of your choices should be from the leanest sources within each category, but no matter what type of animal protein, you should not exceed about 5 go 7 cooked ounces a day. That?s because even the leanest sources contain some saturated fat.
Marinades: Lean meats will benefit from marinating. Fat provides flavor and tenderness, thus leaner meats are tougher and less flavorful. Marinades therefore serve a dual purpose ? they add flavor and they make tougher cuts of meat more tender.
The marinade should always include an acid liquid such as vinegar, sherry, wine, or orange, lemon, lime, or tomato juice.
Marinate beef, pork or lamb for 6 to 24 hours; poultry for 2 to 8 hours; fish for 30 to 60 minutes.
Place the meat and marinade in a large sealable bag and marinate in the refrigerator.
Once you remove the meat, do not use the marinade as a sauce or to baste the meat unless you boil it for several minutes. The marinade becomes contaminated with raw meat and therefore it should be discarded and not reused unless boiled first.
White meat poultry contains less than half the saturated fat of dark meat poultry.
Smaller chickens such as broilers and fryers are leaner than roasters, and roasters are leaner than hens and capons.
Turkey and Cornish game hens are lean.
Ground turkey is not necessarily low in fat as the skin and dark meat are sometimes included. Purchase ground turkey labeled ground turkey breast meat.
Before cooking poultry, remove the skin and the underlying fat layer. To keep it moist, baste with broth, wine, thawed frozen juice concentrate, barbecue sauce, mustard, yogurt, or any other low-fat liquid. You could also cook it in a foil packet with herbs or spices.
If you must cook the poultry with the skin, such as with roasting, be sure to remove the skin before eating. Try putting garlic cloves and rosemary sprigs under the skin to infuse the chicken with wonderful flavor ? you won?t even miss the
Fish And Shellfish:
All fish, including fatty fish such as salmon, should be eaten often.
Buy tuna fish packed in water or olive oil rather than tuna fish packed in vegetable oil.
Commercially fried fish or shellfish should be avoided, however, you can make your own ?oven-fried? fish by dipping the fish in egg white, coating it with homemade breading or cornflake crumbs with herbs and spices, and baking instead of frying.
Shrimp and abalone are moderately high in cholesterol, so they should be eaten no more than once a week. Squid is very high in cholesterol and should not be eaten more often than once or twice a month.
Fish oil supplements may by restricted during this research study and, therefore, the use of fish oil supplements should be discussed with the research staff.
Beef And Veal: In an attempt to decrease dietary fat, many people have eliminated beef from their diet. However, because beef is one of the richest sources of iron, vitamin B-12, and zinc, lean cuts are acceptable to eat on a regular basis.
The leanest cuts of beef are: round roasts or round steak, rump roast, tenderloin, flank steak and sirloin tip. These are cuts where the fat lies on the outside and can be easily trimmed. They are not as marbled (fat steaks seen throughout the meat) as some other cuts of beef.
For cuts of beef that are more marbled, such as sirloin or chuck, trim any visible fat before cooking and eat them less often than the leaner cuts of beef.
The cuts of beef with the greatest amount of fat (such as prime rib, ribs, Porterhouse, rib-eye, or strip steaks) should be considered ?special occasion? foods and eaten infrequently.
When purchasing ground beef, buy the leanest type available, which is typically ?ground round.? If you are cooking the ground beef to include in a casserole, drain all of the fat off before adding it to other foods. Less fat will be removed when cooking ground beef as a hamburger. So, if you are making hamburgers, cook it on a rack so some of the fat drips off. Whenever possible, avoid eating ground beef and hamburger in restaurants because restaurants seldom use lean beef.
Beware of pre-determined fat percentages since they refer to the fat content by the weight of the product rather than the percentage of calories from fat. The following describes the percent of calories that come from fat in ground beef or ground turkey:
Ground Meat Labeled
73% lean???????????.79% of calories from fat
80% lean???????????.71% of calories from fat
85% lean???????????.64% of calories from fat
90% lean???????????.53% of calories from fat
93% lean???????????.45% of calories from fat
95% lean???????????.34% of calories from fat
You may find special reduced-fat ground beef products, such as those containing oat trim or carrageenan, which are acceptable to use.
All cuts of veal are lean except for the breast, so these can be eaten on a regular basis.
Pork And Lamb:
The leanest cuts of pork are tenderloin, center-cut pork chops, center-cut ham and Canadian bacon. Certain brands of pork have been raised to be lean, so look for this type of pork.
Bacon, ribs, and sausage are especially high in fat and they should be ?special occasion? foods.
Lamb is more difficult to trim than other types of meat, so be careful with the frequency with which you eat lamb. Trimmed lamb chops would be your best choice.
The best choices for deli meats are turkey breast, chicken, lean boiled ham, and lean roast beef.
Avoid processed meats such as bologna, salami, hot dogs, sausage and other lunchmeats, which are high in saturated fat.
There are new processed meat products available that have been designed to be low in saturated fat.