Coronary Disease among Men
Coronary heart disease (or coronary artery disease) is a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart (coronary arteries). Coronary disease usually results from the build up of fatty material and plaque (atherosclerosis). As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the heart can slow or stop. The disease can cause chest pain (stable angina), shortness of breath, heart attack, or other symptoms.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. According to the American Heart Association, about every 29 seconds someone in the US suffers from a CHD-related event, and about every minute someone dies from such event. The lifetime risk of having coronary heart disease after age 40 is 49% for men and 32% for women. As women get older, the risk increases almost to that of men.
There are many factors which increase the risk for CHD. Some of the risks are based on family history (genetics), and others are more controllable. Risk factors include the following:
- Family history of coronary heart disease (especially before age 50)
- Male gender
- Age (65 and greater)
- Tobacco smoking
High blood pressure
- High cholesterol levels (specifically, high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol)
- Lack of physical activity or exercise
- High blood homocysteine levels
- Menopause in women
- Infection that causes inflammatory response in the artery wall. (There is some evidence that suggests this, but the theory is being studied.)
Symptoms: The symptoms associated with coronary heart disease may be pronounced, but they can also occur without any noticeable symptoms.
Chest pain (angina) is the most common symptom, and it results from the heart not getting enough blood or oxygen. The intensity of the pain varies from person-to-person. Chest pain may be typical or atypical. Typical chest pain is felt under the sternum and is characterized by a heavy or squeezing feeling, it is precipitated by exertion or emotion, and it is relieved by rest or nitroglycerin.
Atypical chest pain can be located in the left chest, abdomen, back, or arm and is fleeting or sharp. Atypical chest pain is unrelated to exercise and is not relieved by rest or nitroglycerin. Atypical chest pain is more common in women.
The typical nature of the chest pain and the person's age are indicators of the chances of having CHD. For example, a 65-year-old woman with typical angina has a 91% chance of having CHD, while a 55-year-old woman with atypical angina has a 32% chance of having CHD.
Other symptoms include:
Shortness of breath -- This is usually a symptom of congestive heart failure. The heart at this point is weak because of the long-term lack of blood and oxygen, or sometimes from a recent or past heart attack. If the heart is not pumping enough blood to circulate in the body, shortness of breath may be accompanied by swollen feet and ankles.
- Heart attack -- In some cases, the first sign of CHD is a heart attack. This occurs when atherosclerotic plaque or a blood clot blocks the blood flow of the coronary artery to the heart. The coronary artery was likely already narrowed from CHD. The pain associated with a heart attack is usually severe, lasts longer than the chest pain described above, and is not relieved by resting or nitroglycerin.
Dietary Intake of Marine n-3 Fatty Acids, Fish Intake, and the Risk of Coronary Disease among Men
It has been hypothesized that a diet containing n-3 fatty acids from fish reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, but few large epidemiologic studies have examined this question.
In 1986, 44,895 male health professionals, 40 to 75 years of age, who were free of known cardiovascular disease completed detailed and validated dietary questionnaires as part of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. During six years of follow-up, we documented 1543 coronary events in this group: 264 deaths from coronary disease, 547 nonfatal myocardial infarctions, and 732 coronary-artery bypass or angioplasty procedures.
After controlling for age and several coronary risk
factors, we observed no significant associations between dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids or fish intake and the risk of coronary disease. For men in the top fifth of the group in terms of intake of n-3 fatty acids (median, 0.58 g per day), the multivariate relative risk of coronary heart disease was 1.12 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.31), as compared with the men in the bottom fifth (median, 0.07 g per day). For men who consumed six or more servings of fish per week, as compared with those who consumed one serving per month or less, the multivariate relative risk of coronary disease was 1.14 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.51). The risk of death due to coronary disease among men who ate any amount of fish, as compared with those who ate no fish, was 0.74 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.44 to 1.23), but the risk did not decrease as fish consumption
Although the possibility of residual confounding by unmeasured factors cannot be entirely excluded, these data suggest that increasing fish intake from one to two servings
per week to five to six servings per week does not substantially reduce the risk of coronary heart disease among men who are initially free of cardiovascular disease.
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